Posted on 24/01/2016
The district takes its name from the town of Pali which is also headquarters of the district administration. The place has been referred to as \”Palika\” in the old inscription when and how the town acquired the short name of pali is unknown.
The district stretches roughly from 24°45\’ to 26°29\’ north latitudes and 72° 47\’ to 74° 18\’ east longitudes having total area of 12,387 sq. km. It is bounded in north by Jodhpur and Nagaur, in the north east by Ajmer, in the south-east by Udaipur, in the south west by Sirohi & Jalor districts and its vertex in the west touches tri-junction of Barmer, Jalor & Jodhpur districts. It comprises 7 tehsils namely jaitaran Raipur sojat Pali, Marwar Junction, Bali Geology: & Desuri.The District is well connected by rail i.e., Delhi- Ahemdabad section of North-Western Railway and Jodhpur-Marwar section of North-Western Railway. A net-work of roads is spread over the district connecting many villages and important cities of Rajasthan like Jodhpur, Jaipur Ajmer, Sirohi, Udaipur etc.
The shape of the district resembles to an irregular triangle and has generally undulated plains with scattered hills. The Aravalli Range runs along the eastern side of the district from south-west to north-east. The highest peak in the district is 1,099 m. The tributaries Lilri, Sukri, Bandi and Jawai. Discharge their water into Luni, the principal drainage of western Rajasthan. The climate of the district is, on the whole, dry and is very hot in summer and cold in winter. Normal annual rainfall in the district is about 47 cm.
Geological configuration of Pali district is quite complex. It is comprised of heterogeneous assemblage of different litho units of igneous, sedimentary and metamorphic origin.
The geological Sequence Worked out by G.S.I. is given as under:
Supergroup/Age Group Lithology
Quarternary Alluvium & wind blown sand
Nagaur Group Sandstone, gypsum & siltstone
Marwar Supergroup Bilara Group Limestone, chert & dolomite
Jodhpur Group Sandstone, shale, boulders,
Middle to U. Proterozoic Malani Igneous Suite Granite (Jolor type)
Rhyolite & pyroclastics with dykes of granophyre
Erinpura Granite Granite and gneiss
Punagarh Group Basic volcanic with pillow
lava, meta tuff, quartzite, shale, slate phyllite, bedded chert
Delhi Supergroup Sirohi Group Phyllite, mica schist, biotite
Lower to MiddleProterozoic schist, dolomitic marble,
migmatite & gneisses epidiorite, Hornablende
Sendra-Ambaji Granite Granite and gneiss
Phulad Ophiolite Suite Hornblends schist, amphibolite, pyroxene granulite, gabbro & ultramafics.
Kumbhalgarh Group Calc schist, marble, granite
schist/amphibolite, biotite schist, quartzite, mica schist and migmatite
The oldest & prominent rock exposed along district belongs to Delhi supergroup comprising southern, eastern and north eastern margine of the metamorphosed ferruginous and massive clastics.
With subordinate chemogenic sediments and associated intrusive and e\’xtrusive phases. Rocks of this Supergroup have been further classified in Kumbhalgarh, Sirohi & Punagarh Groups.
The Delhi\’s are succeeded by a sequence of unmetamorphosed sedimentary rocks comprised of sandstone, limestone, siltstone, gypsum beds, This Supergroup is further divided into Jodhpur Group, Bilara Group & Nagaur Group.
The Delhi\’s are intruded by granites and rhyolite. The predominant is the Erinpura Granite.
Pali district is endowed with wide variety of minerals. Both metallic and non metallic minerals are found. Good quality deposits of asbestos, limestone, gypsum, magnesite, quartz are found which have been exploited for last so many years.
The details of mineral deposits are given below.
Copper mineralisation has been reported from following localities:
Chitar: A well developed gossan zone was located by state department at 10 kms. from Sandra railway station. It runs along sericitic quartzite and amphibolite of Delhi Supergroup. The strike length of zone is about 2.5 kms. and width varies from 1 to 5 m. As a result of exploratory
drilling totalling 1755 m. in 27 bore holes, a thin zone of mineralisation was proved, extending over a strike length of 350 m. up to 76 m. down the dip. A total of 0.26 million tonnes of ore reserves containing 0.917% Cu at a cut off of 0.6% Cu has been assessed in this area.
Naya Kheda: A gossan zone was located by state department near Naya Kheda, 20 km SSW of Sandra railway station. It is intermittently exposed for about 800 m. along strike in the form of letter \”L\” with width varying from less than one meter to as much as 15 m. The country rocks are Hornblende schist of Delhi supergroup As a result of the prospecting work including drilling (1796 m. in 14 bore holes), a total of 0.05 million tonnes of ore reserves having 28% sulphur, 0.5% Copper and 1.76% Zinc up to 100 m. depth.
Small occurrences of lead mineralization are located near Punagarh and Sandra area. Here mineralization is of disseminated and vein type and shows erratic nature. It is associated with slate/phyllite of Delhi Supergroup.
Minor indications of nickel are noticed around Ranakpur. The occurrence is not of economic value.
During the field investigation carried out by the Department of Mines & Geology, numerous scheelite bearing skarns were located near village Kararavav, Kuram, Bhimana, Sirava, Thandiberi etc. in tehsil Bali. Skarns revealed presence of scheelite at surface under U. V. lamp at many places, particularly due SE of Kararavav and due east of Bhimana village. The analytical results of surface and core samples obtained from 685 m.drilling in six bore holes, indicate that scheelite mineralisation is erratic, surficial and feeble, except in few localised pockets.
The asbestos deposits in Pali district are located near Dhal, Mala-ka-Guda, Sendra, Pateria, Chhagri-Ka Bhagal, Goria, Dhambarli, Kanotiya & Ramgarh. The descriptions of important deposits are given as under.
Ramgarh-Kanotiya deposit: Ramgarh-Kanotia deposit is located on a hill near village Kanotiya about 800 m.east of Ramgarh village. Asbestos is generally found associated with chlorite-mica-schist and talc schist and occasionally with vermiculite and is of tremolite-anthophyllite slip fiber variety. The veins range in width from 15 to 50 cm. and pinch out within a depth of 10 to12 m.
Manpur deposit: This deposit is located near the deserted village of Manpur. A thin band of chloritic schist is associated with the asbestos in form of veins ranging in width from 15 to 60 cm. Generally the veins do not persist to any great depth beyond 8 to 10 m.
Goria deposit: This deposit is located about 5 km. SW of Goria village. Thin veins of magnesite and asbestos found to occur- throughout the whole at highly weathered ultra basic Veins up to 60 to 70 cm thick have been found to occur but they appear to pinch out at a depth of 9 m. The asbestos in tremolite cross fiber type and is hard, brittle and shows numerous fractures due to minor faulting.
Dhal deposit: This deposit is located near the village Dhal where asbestos of tremolite variety occurs as veins as much as15 cm. in thickness in altered calc-gneisses.The asbestos is hard, brittle and woody in appearance. The deposit is small and does not appear to be of any commercial importance.
Chhagri-ki-Bhagal-pateria deposit: Asbestos occurring in these deposits is of tremolite variety. The veins are short, irregular and discontinuous. Asbestos is hard, light yellowish coloured with occasional short and weak fibre. The reserves in above areas have been estimated to be 6500 tonnes upto a depth of 20 m. and 320 tonnes upto a depth of 5 m.only.
Small occurrences of asbestos are also noticed near Sandra, Belphana and Halawal villages.
At Literia large deposit of white clay was located near the top of the limestone of the Vindhyans and overlain by pebble beds. It is grayish while in colour but upper part of the deposit is iron stained. The average thickness of clay bed is 2 m. It possesses fair degree
of plasticity, the water of plasticity being 25.01 %. A total of 0.25 million tonnes. of reserves have been estimated by the state departmental.
The pegmatites occurring around Beranthia Khurd, Bhanuira, Kalyanpura, Kalakot, Raira in Raipur tehsil near villages Nana in Bali tehsil and Sitapura in Sojat tehsil consist mainly of quartz & felspar. The felspar is of pink variety.
Calcite occurrences are located at Bara Guda, Budha Lawa, Kalhab, Kapil-Ki -Bagal, Piplan, Nana, Khemel, Alipur, Khoral, Patan, Oayalpur etc. These areas mainly fall in Raipur and Jaitaran tehsil. A number of small pockets are being worked.
Besides, existing mining leases, there are number of small pockets and lenses of calcite occurring in Bali and Desuri tehsils which have no economic viability.
The magnesite deposits of Sarupa-Chhaja, Gafa and Airaberi are located in the thickly forested border areas of Ajmer and Pali districts. In Airaberi area the thickness of magnesite veins vary from 0.5 cm to as much as 12 cm. The mineralisation appears good and persists under depth of 8 m. The maximum recovery in some pits has been noticed up to 15% of the parent rock.
Small occurrences of magnesite are noticed around Koyalvav, Bhimana, Charia ki Bhagal in Bali tehsil and near Bhira in Raipur tehsil.
This mineral has been exploited in past near Devkhedi and Karanpur villages of Raipur tehsil. It is found in garnet-mica schist and is of abrasive variety. Some times garnet on being broken, yields pieces of gem quality.
This is found associated with quartz, felspar in pegmatits near Kalatiya, Khemal etc. villages.
Small occurrences of soapstone associated with asbestos in ultrabasic rocks are reported from Kanatia & Manpura in tehsil Raipur.
Read ochre/Red oxide
It is observed near Botha-ki-Dhani in Raipur tehsil where it was being exploited by private mine owners. Red oxide and clay are also found around jaitpura & Shyamgarh and have also been worked in past.
Small occurrences of graphite are located near Bar- Railway station. Preliminary investigation by department has shown that carbon content varies from 6-8% only.
Gypsum has been worked in past near Khutani village. Mineralisation occurs over an area of about 1 sq. km. with an average thickness of 1 m. About 0.23 million tonnes reserves having 87% CaSO4 was proved by Department. This deposit was worked earlier by RSMM & private mine owners.
The occurrence of Wollastonite found near KheraUparla village of Udaipur district also extends into Pali and Sirohi districts. The deposit was investigated by G.S.I. and 56 million tonne reserves have been inferred tentatively.
The limestone of Delhi Supergroup occurs in Pali district in the form of ridge continuing from south of Longia in north to Deoli-Hulan in South interuptedly. The nearest railway station is Bar in north and Guria in south of Delhi-Ahmedabad line of western railway. The limestone is coarsely crystalline, having grey to dirty white colour intruded by pegmatitic at places. Limestone is also found in Nana, Kararavav and Thandiberi areas.
Deposit wise description is given below: -1
Limestone Deposit near Ras: The limestone occurs near Ras, Morai, Nimbara-Khurd, Tunkra, Butiwas etc. villages of tehsil Raipur. The area can be approached through Samokhi situated on Jodhpur-Ajmer highway. The nearest railway station is Bar situated on DelhiAhmedabad main line of the WR and is 10 kms away from the deposit. Limestone is coarse crystalline in nat0ure, light grey to dirty white in colour and is thickly bedded. The general strike of the belt is N30E with rolling dips and occurs as straight ridges from Longia in north to Deoli-Hullan in south for strike length of about 100 kms. Preliminary investigations revealed possible reserves of 202 million tonnes in 25 sq.kms. Area prospected near Ras. The average grade comes to be Cao 48%, MgO 1.03% and SiO2 8.8%. The department had carried out investigation just south of Ras earlier by drilling 30 boreholes totalling 721 m. in 9 sq. kms.area and proved about 47.37 million tonnes reserves of drill indicated and 37 million tonnes of inferred category. However, looking to the extension of the belt and its vicinity to road and rail the area was re-examined in 1993-94 and samples were collected.
On the basis of analysis results of the samples and past work, the area was divided in 9 blocks of about 25 sq. kms. each. Out of these 9 blocks, 4 northerly blocks fall in sanctioned areas of M/s. DLF Cement Limited (Now Gujarat Ambuja Cement) and M/s. DLF Cement Limited. (Now Gujarat Ambuja Cement) and M/s shri cement limited. In the remaining 5 areas approximate reserves have been calculated as under (above ground level):
Block -1 99.00 million tonnes
Block -2 99.00 million tonnes
Block -3 120.00 million tonnes
Block -4 61.00 million tonnes
Block -5 140.00 million tonnes
Limestone Deposit. near Guria-Dhunimata-DeoliHullan: The limestone deposit is located just south of Guria railway station on Delhi-Ahmedabad meter gauge main line of the western railway. It trends SSW-NNE for an extent of about 11.00 kms. It is the southern continuity of Ras limestone belt. It is grey to grayish white in colour, fine to coloarse grained and saccharoidal in nature. 85 million tonnes limestone reserves containing 43% to 50% CaO, 0.19% to 1.56% MgO, 6 to 14% SiO2 have been assessed upto 35 m. depth measured from top of the hill. The investigations reveal that major portion of the belt is of cement grade. Limestone near Dhunimata is dolomitic. Part of the area falls in reserve forest.
Limestone Deposit near Thandiberi-Siyava: The deposit is northern extension of Amli – Pindwara belt of Sirohi district. The limestone is part of Kumbhalgarh Group of rocks of Delhi Supergroup. The rock formation extends from village Thandiberi to north of Bharja village. The strike extension being 9 kms and maximum width is 2.7 kms. The northern part of this limestone is siliceous. The limestone around Kakarla, Kararavav, Bhill colony contains 47% CaO, 7.8% SiO2 and is suitable for cement manufacture. About 8.2 million tonnes reserves have been estimated. Partly the area is in reserve forest.
Limestone Deposit near Nana-Kararavav: Limestone Deposit occurs near villages Kararavav, Kakdara, Railya etc. in Tehsil Bali. The nearest railway station Nana, on Delhi-Ahmedabad main line of the WR, is 8 kms. from the deposit. Limestone occurs in the form of hillocks trending N 100-45OE, dips ranging from 55° to almost vertical. Reserves of 15 million tonnes have been inferred containing 47% CaO, 7.6% Si02 and 2% MgO.
A long band of limestone is also located west of Kotaria over a strike length of about 1 km. It appears to be of cement grade.
Limestone Deposit near Mandla-Atbara: The limestone deposit of Mandla-Atbara, Rundla in Pali district is the part of the main limestone belt stretching over a length of 160 kms and 0.80 kms to 12 kms wide belonging to Marwar Supergroup trending ENE. The limestone of this belt comprises mainly SMS/Chemical/Cement grade having intercalations of cherty and siliceous limestone in the form of intermittent bands. Many mining leases are in operation. In Rundia area 14.40 million tonne reserves containing 45% CaO & 0.5 to 2.89% MgO have been estimated by the Department.
The search for marble in Pali district began during 1960 when first marble deposit was explored at Bheru,.Ka-Baria near Bar-Sendra. Due to varied colours and rarely seen natural figures, the marble of this district gained importance and opened up avenues for search of such more marble areas. As a result the deposits at Jadri, Sindru, Diyana, Bankli, Khiwandi, near Sumerpur town in Bali tehsil, Gurah and Kantaliya in Raipur tehsil have come up. The following table gives a summary of marble occurrences of Pali district along with their salient features
Name of deposit/area Physical character Nature
Bheru Ka Baria near Bar Pinkish & reddish Calciticsilicious
Bankli Khiwandi near Sumerpur Multi coloured Calciticsiliceous
Sindru-Diyana Banded, pinkish, greenish Calcitesiliceous
Jadri near Falna Banded, pinkish, greenish Calciesiliceous
Guraha near Babra Pinkesh Calciesiliceous
Kantala near Sojat Road Pinkish Calcitic Siliceous
Building Stone: Extensively worked Bar conglomerate at Bar, Giri and Lawacha in Raipur tehsil being the only deposits in the district, which yields roofing and flooring slabs upto 6 m. long, 0.5 m. wide and 6 to 12 cm. thick. Small deposits of sandstone in the vicinity of Sojat are also being worked as masonry stone and at places slabs are also produced.
Granite: Granite occurs in a large area in southern part (Bali-Desuri-Nana) area of Pali district and also between Bar & Sandra in Ne part of the district. This granite is mainly Erinpura granite. It is off white to pink, coarse and porphyritic in nature. Small exposures are also located along Jodhpur-Pali road and at the border of Pali-Jalor district, i.e.; in SW part. In past it was used as masonry stone but after declaring the Granite Policy in 1995 by state Government, the investigations were taken up to decide the suitability of granite of Pali area as a decorative stone. As a result of which many new leases have been sanctioned in Kharda-Ki-Dhani, Dharm-Dhari-Chotila, Bali-Maniyari, Nadol-Narlai, Kotsamariya, Bar-Sandra- JhakKi-Chowki, Ramniya, Jawariya, Natra-Jhakhora-Rajora areas.